Satyr’s Daughters by Judy Fox

(Last Updated On June 13, 2021)

Satyr’s Daughters is a group of five painted ceramic sculptures by Judy Fox. The artist was born in New Jersey in 1957, and currently lives in New York. She is most famous for her life-size realistic terra-cotta nudes of women and children. Satyr’s Daughters was created in 1999 and originally displayed in the PPOW Gallery in New York City. The display included four statues of girls, each about seven years old (the daughters), and one adult man (the satyr). The four girls were displayed on high pedestals on one side of the room; they were meant to be viewed from below. The Satyr was on the other side of the room on a low platform, and was looking at the daughters. Although they were displayed in one group, each of the five statues was sold individually. Since Pigtails is about girls, this post will concentrate on the daughters.

Judy Fox – Satyr’s Daughters (1999)

The four daughters represent four different geographical areas: India, Africa, China, and Europe. Fox said that she chose models at an age when they were becoming conscious of their beauty, but were still innocent of its sexual implications. Fox considers herself to be a feminist, and strives for her art to reflect that.

Lakshmi represents India. Lakshmi is the name of a Hindu goddess, but the Lakshmi of Satyr’s Daughters has an appearance different from traditional portrayals of the divinity. Hindus worship Lakshmi as the goddess of wealth, love, beauty, joy and prosperity. Lakshmi is conventionally depicted as an adult woman with four arms, as in the painting by Raja Ravi Varma. However, Lakshmi was incarnate on Earth as Sita and as Rukmini, so it may not be entirely contrary to Hindu doctrine to portray her as a young girl. At least, I have not read of any Hindus objecting to the Lakshmi statue in Satyr’s Daughters.

Judy Fox – Lakshmi (1999)

Ravi Varma -Goddess Lakshmi (1848 – 1906)

Africa is represented by Onile. Onile is the Earth and metalworking goddess of the Yoruba people of Nigeria and Benin. She is often portrayed in abstract bronze statuettes in a pose similar to the Onile of Judy Fox. Although Onile is divine, I have not read of any Yoruba complaining of the Onile in Satyr’s Daughters as sacrilege.

Judy Fox – Onile (1999)

Judy Fox – Onile (1999)

Unknown Nigerian Artist – Onile Yoruba Figurine (20th century)

Court Lady is the daughter for China. This statue is reminiscent of Tang Dynasty figurines of Chinese ladies. Court Lady replicates the posture and hair of the figurines, but with a nude child instead of a clothed adult. Photographs of live models were used to make the Satyr’s Daughters statues. Judy Fox lives and works in New York City, and it seems likely that her models were all from that area. Fox included details in the hair, posture, and titles of the sculptures to indicate that the girls represent different parts of the world and different cultures; not merely New York girls who happen to be of different ethnic backgrounds.

Judy Fox – Court Lady (1999)

Judy Fox – Court Lady (1999)

Anonymous – Tang Dynasty Figurine (618 – 906)

Rapunzel is Europe’s daughter. It is a good choice, I think, to use a fairy tale character from Grimm to represent Europe. The Grimm brothers collected their folk tales in 19th century Germany, but the tales are common in all European countries and are centuries old. Rapunzel is probably the best of Grimm’s Tales for the Satyr’s Daughters series because of her long hair. Since the figures are nude, the hair is one of the details necessary to give each daughter her individuality.

Judy Fox – Rapunzel (1999)

Judy Fox – Rapunzel (1999)

Controversy could potentially arise from the fact that real girls modeled for Satyr’s Daughters, and realistic nude statues of the girls were put on public display. If anything was done to make the models unrecognizable from the statues, it was not mentioned in any review that I read. Yet despite the fact that the girls were originally displayed with a satyr, and satyrs are by definition lascivious, I have not read of any objections in this regard to Satyr’s Daughters.

2021 State of the Blog Address

(Last Updated On June 10, 2021)

Given all that has been going on, I feel like this is a great time to publish a ‘State of the Blog’. As can be seen from the last post, our host was ordered by UK police to shut down this site, Agapeta and Graham Ovenden’s two sites. As has happened a number of times in the past, we have guardian angels who appreciate our mission and assist when they can to keep us afloat. Thank you all so much for your support.

Status of Allied Sites: Because Pigtails and Agapeta use the WordPress template, they were the easiest to reinstate. What I understand is that Agapeta is publicly visible right now under the same domain name but with an incomplete database. It is expected to be completely restored during the coming weekend. Graham’s sites (The Graham Ovenden personal site and Garage Press) will take longer. Our former host did not like the unwieldy structure of WordPress and so used something he was more comfortable with. Our new host needs to familiarize himself with that protocol before they can be restored. All domain names have been successfully transferred and there are no changes to any of the web addresses.

Our New Host: There is something of an interesting story about our new host. As readers are probably aware, there is a lot of controversy with a site such as ours which focuses on the “Cult of the Girl Child”. Another sensitive topic these days is the way young girls are sometimes portrayed in fantasy situations in manga and anime including sexually suggestive or even explicit content. There are many who want to make the important distinction between fantasy and the advocacy of physical abuse. In order to protect this material (some with artistic or political merit, Debbie Dreschler for instance) from undue censorship, a team was put together to figure out a “bulletproof” way to have this material be available online despite heated objection by the lay public. The problem with corporate management of domain names and websites is that with their bottom line of profits, they are simply too susceptible to public opinion and anything that is not worth the trouble gets shut down. This has happened many times with Pigtails as many of you know. The idea is that our host will boldly deal with the ridicule, complaints and cyber attacks on the sites to keep them up and running. In addition, the sites will be run in jurisdictions that are are more understanding of the real challenges of freedom of speech (definitely not the UK or the US). I don’t want to give you the impression that this is some kind of obstinate rogue operation; when there are legitimate legal issues, such complaints can go through proper legal channels (namely, the courts) and will be dealt with according to the rule of law. This program is in its early stages so I imagine hosting Pigtails is an important test case, especially because of our size and the fact that we don’t really push the limits that much except in the service of academic pursuits.

Our Priorities Going Forward: I have not had much time for this site recently, but it is important that it remain active as a resource. I will continue to make occasional posts, but my focus will be on completing the databases: first, completing the ‘Artists by Name’ page and then putting together a bibliography of the PIgtails Library.

Contributors Pulling Their Weight: Since I am less active, I do urge readers to make contributions by writing short pieces. I understand that many of you are not confident in your use of English but as Editor-in-Chief, it will be my responsibility to edit your work to make sure it is presentable and meets our standards of content. Moko, for instance, is planning on making monthly contributions. A few others have promised to do works and I think I will make the rounds and ask them to get on with it.

The Charming Thing about Conspiracies: The word “conspiracy” has a pretty straightforward definition but in modern society, it is regarded with ridicule even when there are real machination at play. One of the key reasons Pigtails was brought down the way it was is due to flagrant (UK) police corruption. Let me be clear that a great many policemen and detectives are honorable and do their work with an eye for real service to the public. And every organization of course has it’s bad seeds as well. It is mostly because of this site’s support of Graham Ovenden and my personal role in helping get his first websites established that has made us such a target. Certain individuals in the UK police force have real reasons to be concerned about their misbehavior being exposed and the public demanding action. They cannot afford these claims to get any traction in the media. Why am I so confident? As part of the conditions in the conclusion of the Ovenden court case, the judge ordered that copies of police records used in the prosecution be given to the defendant. In one of my recent visits to Graham, I got to see one of those documents and my jaw dropped! Right there in the police’s own written records (which I’m sure they never expected would see the light of day) their strategy and overt manipulation of the evidence and witnesses is actually spelled out. Graham assures me that these papers are now in a secure place but it is uncertain if political circumstances will ever permit an airing (the CCTC declined an appeal despite overwhelming evidence) of this particular misconduct and the escalating and vindictive efforts to cover it up. That is all I wish to say about it for now since I have only seen a few of these items personally. I only want to impress upon readers that attacks on us are not only a matter vocal self-righteous complaints of perversion but a real threat to the careers of certain members in the UK police hierarchy (and possibly officers of Her Majesty’s courts). I wish I could somehow disentangle this issue from our usual work, but I would consider this an act of cowardice. I understand that Graham has shared a few of these details on his website which you can read when it goes back online.

My First Act: The thin end of the wedge in bringing down Pigtails was the request that images from the Debbie Dreschler post be removed because they portray child abuse. Ironic, since the comic book artist’s point was to bring attention to that exact issue. My first act this weekend will be to replace those.

It is a delight to once again welcome readers back to PIgtails in Paint. We look forward to your continued support. -Ron, Editor-in-Chief

Final Message to Readers … for now

(Last Updated On June 10, 2021)

I have been informed by our host that in order to continue conducting business, they must remove Pigtails in Paint for their client list. The same goes for Agapeta. We will be removed in the next few days. We apologize but running such a challenging site has its pitfalls. Please note that you can continue to reach me at [email protected]

As before, we will probably reestablish a Pigtails Facebook page with any news and updates. We will naturally be needing a new host and I am told that we will have full backup information so we can relocate the site. We will most likely have to give up the site address pigtailsinpaint.org as well since it is unknown how and when we can get the site up and running again and, to be honest, it is not a priority for me at this time.

My apologies but we did have a good run and have already made a major contribution on the subject of the Cult of the Girl Child. -Ron, Editor-in-Chief

PS – Rest assured that since we have not done anything illegal, no legal actions are being taken against any Pigtails staff members.

Norman Rockwell’s Girls

(Last Updated On May 3, 2021)

Norman Rockwell was one of 20th century America’s most popular painters. He is famous for his paintings of contemporary everyday life that some critics dismiss as overly sentimental. Rockwell is best known for his cover illustrations for Boy’s Life and The Saturday Evening Post magazines, and for the Boy Scout calendars. He was a perfectionist who tried to get the details right. One his paintings was posted on Pigtails here. Another illustration based on a Rockwell painting, but with a new background, was posted here.

Rockwell created many paintings of children. Although his paintings of boys are better known, there are paintings of girls too. The Young Lady with the Shiner is the first of Rockwell’s paintings that will be included in this post. A young girl has been called to the principal’s office for fighting in school. There are three things about this picture that are typical of Rockwell’s art. First is that the girl appears strangely happy even though she has a bruised eye and is about to be punished by the principal. Finding humor and optimism in unlikely situations is a rockwellesque trait. This can be taken as belittling children’s legitimate problems, and therefore has often been criticized. Pip Starr in an earlier post here wrote “Rockwell’s work tends to sacrifice children’s dignity on the altar of humor…” The second thing is that this painting shows the aftermath of the fight instead of the fight itself. Rockwell often chose to paint the prelude or the consequence of an event rather than the main event. Realistic detail is another characteristic of Rockwell. He did not want to give the model a real black eye, and makeup was not, in his judgement, realistic enough. Therefore Rockwell advertised for a model with a black eye, who would model only for the eye. Mary Whalen posed for everything except the black eye of the girl in the painting.

Norman Rockwell – The Young Lady with the Shiner (1953)

Norman Rockwell – The Young Lady with the Shiner Photo (1953)

When Mary was called from class to go to the principal’s office, she thought that she was actually in trouble. She started to cry, and the teacher let her twin brother go with her for moral support. When she saw that she was only there to be a model, she was relieved. She had posed for Rockwell before. The artist asked her to smile as if she had just won a fight with her brother. Below are the painting and the photograph of Mary from which Rockwell made the painting.

Mary Whalen also modeled for A Day in the Life of a Girl. This painting was done when Mary was 9 years old, the year before The Young Lady with the Shiner. A Day in the Life of a Girl is actually a series of twenty-two pictures illustrating a typical day in the life of an American girl in 1952. The boy in these pictures was modeled by ten year old Chuck Marsh. The painting and the photographs for the painting are shown below. Note the difference between the painting and the fourth from the last photo. Chuck said later that Mr. Rockwell tried very hard to get him to kiss Mary, but even though he liked Mary a lot, Chuck was too shy. Finally Rockwell gave up and let Chuck pretend to kiss a bronze bust instead of Mary.

Norman Rockwell – A Day in the Life of a Girl (1952)

Norman Rockwell – A Day in the Life of a Girl Photo (1952)

I don’t think it would be that hard today to get a ten-year-old boy who is a paid model to kiss a girl. Especially since it’s only an attempted kiss on the forehead. The 1950s were a different time. Rockwell painted cover illustrations for The Saturday Evening Post from 1916 through 1963. People who never lived in rural America at that time may find it hard to believe, but Rockwell’s depictions of rural and small town life in that era are quite realistic. At least they appear realistic to me, and I lived in rural America during the latter part of that period.

Even though children were more shy then, there was young romance. It was just more subdued. The next two paintings are from Rockwell’s Four Seasons Portfolio. They illustrate young love in the summer and fall.

Norman Rockwell – Young Love Walking to School (1949)

Norman Rockwell – Young Love Swinging (1949)

The next paintings illustrate typical feminine characteristics. The girl is happy to dress up in new school clothes, but the boy is not. Girls also like dolls. In the painting Girl With Christmas Doll, two dolls seem to be vying for the girl’s attention. Apparently the girl is holding her old doll, and the Christmas doll is on the floor. The girl has a problem because she loves her old doll and may feel that it would be unfaithful to give her affection to a new doll.

Norman Rockwell – Mother Sending Children Off to School (1919)

Norman Rockwell – Girl With Christmas Doll (1917)

A doll is also featured in The Doctor and the Doll. Rockwell tends to portray people as good and understanding. The girl is intimidated because the doctor will examine her. The kind-hearted physician tries to put the girl at ease by examining her doll first.

Norman Rockwell – The Doctor and the Doll (1929)

The American Way was painted in 1944, during World War II. The title refers to the fact that Americans boasted that it was “the American way” to help people in need, just as the American GI is helping the little girl. Today it is fashionable to emphasize the negative, but Rockwell wanted to inspire people to try to emulate the positive virtues of characters in his paintings. Today many would observe that the little girl may not have been in need of help if the Americans had not made war in her country, but people did not think that way in 1944. Rockwell did not completely ignore the bad parts of American life (See his painting Murder in Mississippi.), but usually he tried to highlight the good. Although Rockwell always tried to get the details right, he made a mistake in The American Way. The soldier wears an ammunition belt for the M1 Garand rifle, but the weapon shown with him is a Thompson submachine gun.

Norman Rockwell – The American Way (1944)

Girl Returning From Camp was the illustration for the August 24th, 1940 cover of The Saturday Evening Post. Magazines were very popular at that time before the internet, and The Saturday Evening Post was one of the most popular magazines in America. Rockwell, and other popular artists created covers for The Saturday Evening Post. Girl Returning From Camp inspired more people to write letters to the magazine than any other cover illustration. It surprises me that it was so controversial. A lot of readers were not sure if the child on the cover was a boy or a girl.

Norman Rockwell – Girl Returning from Camp (1940)

It is obvious to me, from her hairstyle and her skirt, that she is a girl. Boys did not wear long hair in 1940. Why would people think she was a boy? Maybe it is because she seems unhappy to return from camp where she enjoyed the rough adventure even though she had minor injuries on her finger and knee. I grew up on a farm, and my girl cousins and classmates were not afraid of snakes or of getting dirty in the woods. Perhaps residents of more urban areas had a different idea of what little girls should be like. The public reaction to the painting may tell us something about the city dweller’s perception of young girls. You can read about the controversy in an essay here.

A few details are worth noting in Girl Returning From Camp. Rockwell painted the snake and turtle so realistically that I could look up the species of each. I believe the snake is Opheodrys vernalis and the turtle is Chrysemys picta. Both species are indigenous to the eastern United States where the girl presumably went to camp. Note the chips in the blade of the girl’s hatchet. Rockwell undoubtedly knew, from his close association with the Boy Scouts, that a properly used hatchet should not have a chipped blade. The insinuation is that this girl may have been a little wild and reckless at camp.

April Fool 1948 will be the last painting in this post. April Fools covers for The Saturday Evening Post were painted in 1943, 1945 and 1948. Only the 1948 cover features a girl. These covers were intended to be games for the readers of the magazine, who would try to find all of the errors in the picture. I get the feeling that there is more to it than just an April Fools game, but I don’t know how to interpret it. I will point out only one of the many strange things that make this painting so surreal. The girl holding the ugly doll with cloven hooves appears in the painting two more times: in the lower right holding a skunk and in the upper left as a marble bust. You can see a list of fifty-six errors in April Fool 1948 here. If anybody has insight into this painting, please leave a comment.

Norman Rockwell – April Fool, 1948 (1948)

Random Images: Alkemanubis

(Last Updated On May 5, 2021)

Christian recently found this image requesting that it be identified. He suggested that it may have come from DeviantArt but Pip doesn’t think so because it violates their TOS. He believes it is associated with Manga. If it originally appeared there, that may be why it cannot be found there any longer. Any assistance would be much appreciated. It appears to be a kind of bacchanalia comprised of little girls. [see additional  comments below]

Alke / Alkemanubis - Ritual

Alkemanubis – Ritual (variant) (2018)

[20210505] Once again, our readers come to the rescue. As can be seen below, a few out there knew the source of this image. Many thanks to all of you. One contributor even told me he knew the artist personally, so it is possible that we may be expanding this post at some point.

It turns out that Pip and Christian were both right. Alke/Alkemanubis has a DeviantArt account and a Pixiv account (the latter from which this image was removed). There are apparently four versions of this image.

Girls of Oceania Part 2: Melanesia and Micronesia

(Last Updated On April 16, 2021)

Melanesia is by far the part of Oceania with the most land area. The island of New Guinea has more than twice as much land as Polynesia and Micronesia combined. It is also the earliest inhabited part of Oceania. If you look at a map, it will not be obvious why Melanesia is considered to be part of Oceania. On the map, a swarm of large islands, close together, extends from the Malay Peninsula to the Fiji Islands.

The islands from New Guinea to Fiji are considered to be Melanesia, and the islands west of New Guinea are said to be part of Asia. The reason for dividing Melanesia from Asia at New Guinea is that the people who inhabit the islands west of New Guinea are of the same race as the Malay people on the Asian mainland. From New Guinea east to Fiji the people are of a Black race with an appearance similar to the people of Africa. Melanesia is big enough and old enough to have a rich diversity of cultures, and most of the images of Melanesia in this post are from ethnographic works.

An ethnographic contrivance by Francis Barton, along with some information about the photographer, was posted in Pigtails in Paint here.  Another of Captain Barton’s photographs is shown below. It was published in the book Melanesians of British New Guinea by Charles Seligman. The purpose of the photograph is to show the tattoo patterns of the girl’s tribe.

Francis Rickman Barton – Tattooed Girl (1904-1910)

J. G. Pasteur was another photographer who documented the life on New Guinea in about the time of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Pasteur sent the negatives of his work to Europe, and his friend C. H. Stratz published the photos in his books after Pasteur’s death. The Stratz books are not art books, but the photos definitely have an artistic composition. Stratz wrote in Naturgeschichte des Menschen that J. G. Pasteur created the most beautiful and artistically perfect Papua pictures (Papua is another name for New Guinea). Although Naturgeschichte des Menschen is a scientific book, Stratz was clearly interested in the artistic value of the photographs.

J.G. Pasteur – Papuamädchen von Acht bis Zehn Jahren (circa 1900)

J.G. Pasteur – Papuamädchen von Etwa Zehn Jahren (circa1900)

J.G. Pasteur – Mädchen von Vierzehn Jahren aus Taubadji (circa1900)

The next two Melanesian photos are anonymous images from the Solomon Islands and New Britain Island. The picture of the Solomon Islands girl with the wide smile and flowers in her hair is particularly evocative of a happy childhood. The New Britain girl appears more somber. She was probably posed that way by an ethnologist to demonstrate the musical instrument of her tribe.

Anonymous – Solomon Island Girl (circa1920)

Museum für Völkerkunde, Dresden – A Girl from Gazelle Peninsula, New Britain, Playing on Pongolo (before 1930)

The next photograph is from the collection of the American physician Sylvester M. Lambert. Lambert spent twenty years in the Pacific islands as a doctor for the Rockefeller Foundation’s International Health Board. During that time he took many photographs that document the life of the island people. His photos have the appearance of an amateur snapshot. This is a photo of Melanesian women and girls. One source says the photo was taken on Santa Ana Island, while another says that it is from Santa Catalina Island. Santa Ana (Owaraha) and Santa Catalina (Owariki) are both in the Solomon Islands, and are separated by less than two miles of water.

S. M. Lambert – Women and Girls on Santa Ana (1919–1939)

Note that all of the Melanesian photos shown so far were taken before 1940, and that the girls in the photos have no clothing. The idea that nudity is obscene, although common in Western culture, is not universally held. There are two interesting maps in Die Frauenkleidung und ihre natürliche Entwicklung by C. H. Stratz that show where women routinely went nude in the years 1500 and 1900. This area seems to be most of the tropics in 1500, and a much smaller but still significant area, including part of Melanesia, in 1900. (I think he underestimated the area in South America in 1900.) There is still at least one area in Melanesia where nudity is common today. On the Melanesian island of Malaita, it is customary in some communities for only men, boys, and married women to wear clothes, while girls and young unmarried women go naked. Most of Melanesia has adopted western or at least semi-western modes of dress today. This is shown on the last two images from Melanesia. Both are from the Melanesian Women Today web page.

Melanesian Women Today – Solomon Scholarships (circa2020)

Melanesian Women Today – Takuu (circa2020)

In Micronesia, many people wore clothing, even if only grass skirts, before they adopted western style dress. The next two photographs are of girls on the Micronesian island of Nauru. Nauru is now an independent state, and with a land area of about eight square miles is one of the smallest sovereign states.

Anonymous – Nauru Girls (circa 1920)

Australian War Memorial – Private Corfield with a Young Nauruan Girl (1945)

Micronesian people are related to Polynesians. They are descended from the same group of migrants that left Taiwan in ancient times and went to Indonesia. Some of those people went north to Micronesia while the rest went east to Polynesia. The Micronesian population was later augmented with more migrants from Polynesia and from The Philippines.

Yap is a very traditional Micronesian island, where the old-fashioned grass skirts are still worn for special occasions. The next image is a vintage postcard from Yap showing a girl, a man, and one of the stone wheels that are highly valued by the people on Yap. Following that is a photo taken by an Australian woman and posted on her Lozinyap blog. The two girls were celebrating Yap Day in 2015.

Anonymous – Girl and Man on Yap (circa1940)

Lozinyap – Yapday Girls (2015)

Guam is the biggest and most cosmopolitan island in Micronesia. Gerard Aflague is a Chamorro, an indigenous person of Guam, and an illustrator of children’s books. He has illustrated, and written several books with Christian religious, educational, and Pacific Island themes. His wife is also a writer. He seems to be very proud of his Chamorro heritage, and the first image is the cover of a book written in both Chamorro and English. He has also written and illustrated bilingual books in English and other Pacific island languages.

Gerard Aflague – Cover of Head Shoulders Knees and Toes (2017)

Gerard Aflague – Cover of Little Chamorrita Did I Tell You (2014)

Robert Hunter is a painter living in the Northern Mariana Islands. He has a great deal of experience as a commercial and fine artist, having worked as an artist for the United States Postal Service, the Red Cross and others. Much of his art revolves around Micronesian life and legends. The first painting by Robert Hunter, Things Lost, Things Found , depicts a young girl and a nautilus shell on the beach. The second painting, Piggyback, shows a girl carrying another child.

Robert Hunter – Things Lost, Things Found (2010)

Robert Hunter – Piggyback (2011)

Most of Micronesia consists of U.S. territories or independent states in free association with the United States. The free association status, among other things, makes it easy for the Micronesians to enter the United States. Many people from Chuuk (formerly Truk) have settled in Milan, Minnesota. The mural of a young Chuukese girl shown below is on the wall of Bergen’s Prairie Market in Milan.

Anonymous – Mural of a Micronesian Girl on Bergen’s Prairie Market (circa2020)

The last example of a young island girl in this post is one that people in the USA, and in associated states that use US money, have probably already seen. This is the Northern Marianas Islands quarter dollar for the “America the Beautiful” quarter series. The design depicts a girl at the memorial commemorating the 1944 Battle of Saipan. Donna Weaver designed the quarter, and Phebe Hemphill sculpted it. Phebe Hemphill said on a Youtube video that the person on the quarter is a “young girl”. On the US Mint website, however, the person on the quarter is described as a “young woman”. I agree with the sculptor that she is a girl, and therefore have included the quarter in this post.

Weaver and Hemphill – America the Beautiful Quarter for Northern Mariana Islands (2019)

Farm Girls in Naturalist Painting 4: More Goose Girls

(Last Updated On April 11, 2021)

One year ago, I started this series of articles on naturalist paintings of rural girls, and I pointed out that in the 19th century, peasant life was a theme of predilection for the schools of social realism and naturalism, both as a focus on the fate of poor toiling people and as an expression of interest in nature, in contrast with modern urban life.

In peasant families of that time, children participated in farm work, and it seems that herding flocks of geese was a girl’s job. Thus, many 19th century paintings represented goose girls, and indeed, my first article was devoted to The Goose Girl of Mézy by Léon Augustin Lhermitte. Moreover, this topic was the subject of the German fairy tale Die Gänsemagd, collected by the Brothers Grimm and published in Grimm’s Fairy Tales in 1815, which has been illustrated by many artists.

I will thus present here a selection of such paintings. The criteria for my choice have been the quality of the painting and of its digital reproduction, its naturalistic style (as opposed to later schools of Impressionism and Expressionism), and that it shows a young girl, not an adult woman.

I start with Jules Bastien-Lepage, the painter of Pauvre Fauvette presented in my second article. This “goose girl”, dated around 1875, belongs to the Philadelphia Museum of Art:

Jules Bastien-Lepage - Goose girl (c1875)

Jules Bastien-Lepage – Goose girl (c1875)

One of the most famous painters of the rural world is Jean-François Millet (1814–1875). Many people have seen his Des Glaneuses (1857), showing women gleaning in a field after harvest, and L’Angélus (1857–59), showing a peasant couple praying at the sound of a church bell. Born in the hamlet of Gruchy (now part of the village Gréville-Hague) in Normandy, he worked in the family farm until 1834, when he left to study painting in Cherbourg, then in Paris. In 1849 he moved to Barbizon, east of Paris, where he remained for the rest of his life; he is one of the founders of the famous “Barbizon school” of realist painting.

He briefly returned to his birthplace in 1856, where he painted the following work, now at the National Museum of Wales (image from Tutt’[email protected]):

Jean-Francois Millet - The goose girl at Gruchy (1856)

Jean-Francois Millet – The goose girl at Gruchy (1856)

In the 1850s and 1860s, he painted several goose girls. One was exhibited at the 1867 Salon, about which he wrote to his friend Sensier: “I want to make the screams of my geese ring through the air. Ah! life, life! the life of the whole!” Here is one these paintings, dated 1866–67; previously owned by Sensier, it belongs now to the Tokyo Fuji Art Museum.

Jean-François Millet - The goose girl (1866-67)

Jean-François Millet – The goose girl (1866-67)

He also painted a nude “goose girl,” but this one is a woman rather than a girl.

The English painter and illustrator Alice Mary Havers (1850–1890) was popular for her genre paintings of village women and rural landscape. Here are two of her goose girls in a beautiful landscape (images from the Art Renewal Center):

Alice Mary Havers - Goosey, goosey gander

Alice Mary Havers – Goosey, goosey gander (date unknown)

Alice Mary Havers - The goose girl

Alice Mary Havers – The goose girl (date unknown)

The Irish novelist Edith Somerville (1858–1949), also a suffragette and Irish nationalist, painted and sketched, illustrating picture books. Here is (from the Crawford Art Gallery) an oil painting showing a goose girl who looks sulky, as she has befriended a goose and does not want to see it served for dinner:

Edith Somerville - The goose girl (1888)

Edith Somerville – The goose girl (1888)

Johann Till the Younger (1827–1894) was an Austrian genre painter. He trained in Vienna under his father Johann Till the Elder, and studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna under Leopold Kupelwieser and Christian Ruben. He was member of the Künstlerhaus, an association of visual artists in Vienna. The following image comes from Tutt’[email protected] Masterpieces:

Johann Till - The little goose girl

Johann Till – The little goose girl

Gustaf Theodor Wallén (1860–1948) was a Swedish social realist painter, graphic artist, cartoonist and sculptor. He studied at the Academy of Art under George von Rosen. In 1887 he won a travel award to study in Paris at the Académie Colarossi and, under William Bouguereau, at the Academie Julian. The following image comes from the Art Renewal Center:

Gustaf Theodor Wallén - The little goosegirl

Gustaf Theodor Wallén – The little goosegirl

Václav Brožík (1851–1901) was a Czech academic painter. He went to Paris in 1876, and for the rest of his life he divided his time between Paris and Prague. He painted scenes from Czech history, portraits, genre paintings, and landscapes. He was influenced by the two great French naturalist painters of rural life, Jean-Francois Millet and Jules Breton, as can be seen in the following work in the National Gallery in Prague:

Václav Brožík - Goose girl (1880s)

Václav Brožík – Goose girl (1880s)

The Polish realist painter Antoni Gramatyka (1841–1922) studied art in Kraków and Vienna. He mostly worked in Kraków and its neighborhood. He painted landscapes, portraits, church polychromes, day-to-day life in Kraków and rural scenes in surrounding villages.

Antoni Gramatyka - Girl with geese (1881)

Antoni Gramatyka – Girl with geese (1881)

Finally, the great academic painter William-Adolphe Bouguereau, who had so often represented peasant girls, has also made one goose girl (image from the Art Renewal Center):

William-Adolphe Bouguereau - The goose girl (1891)

William-Adolphe Bouguereau – The goose girl (1891)

Girls of Oceania: Part 1 – Polynesia

(Last Updated On April 16, 2021)

Some islands are conventionally associated with a continent. For example, Japan and Indonesia are islands in the Pacific, but they are considered to be part of Asia. There are many islands scattered throughout the Pacific that are not associated with any continent; they are known collectively as Oceania. Oceania consists of three sections: Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia. This post will be about Polynesia; Melanesia and Micronesia will be covered in Girls of Oceania Part 2.

Polynesian people originated in Taiwan. Over the course of many generations, they migrated south to Philippines and Indonesia, then east until they reached the island groups of Samoa and Tonga about 1000 BC. They remained in Samoa and Tonga for over a thousand years. Then, in a relatively short time, they spread throughout the eastern Pacific. Polynesia expanded to Hawaii in the north, New Zealand in the southwest, and Easter Island in the southeast. This is a huge area of ocean, millions of square miles, but it contains only about 118,000 square miles of land, of which 103,000 square miles are in New Zealand.

These remote islands developed a mystique during the era before air travel, when visiting an isolated island was like going to another planet, with little to no contact with the outside world. There is a romance in being so detached from the rest of the world. In the days of sailing ships when the male crews may have spent weeks without seeing a woman before stopping at a Polynesian island, the women of the islands were of particular interest. Polynesia became famous for women hula dancers, but young girls were also hula dancers.

The first example of a children’s hula, called “keiki hula” in Hawaiian, is this photo of Shirley Temple in her hula costume from the movie Curly Top. This was not an island movie, but hula dancing had become popular everywhere. Polynesian costume looks cute and feminine and therefore is appealing to girls who are not Polynesian. An image of non-Polynesian girls in grass skirts by Shannon Richardson was posted on Pigtails in Paint here.

Fox Studios – Publicity Photo for Curly Top (1935)

Hulas, including keiki hula, are more popular in Polynesia than elsewhere. The next two images show keiki hula shows in Hawaii, the first at the Kona Inn in the 1940s; the second at a shopping mall in the present century.

Anonymous – Keiki Hula at Kona Inn (1940s)

Na Kamalii Nani o Lahaina Hula School – Hula Show at the Mall (circa2016)

Hula girls have inspired several painters, including John Yato. Yato was born in Japan and his family moved to California when he was nine years old. He specializes in bright watercolors of various parts of the world, including the Pacific islands. The following two paintings by John Yato were inspired by Polynesian girls.

John Yato – Little Hulas (circa2010)

John Yato – Paradise Smile (circa2020)

Hawaiian girls are featured in cartoons as well as fine art. Lilo and Stitch, one of the best known Hawaiian-themed cartoons, was released by Disney in 2002. This story of a 6-year old Hawaiian girl who adopts a creature from outer space was a very successful movie. Sequels and a television series of Lilo and Stitch have been made.

Walt Disney Pictures – Lilo and Stitch (c2002)

Barbara Bradley was one of the 20th century’s outstanding illustrators. She made many illustrations of young girls, and I am surprised that she has not already been featured in Pigtails in Paint. Her typical style of drawing was more realistic, but she did a series of Hawaiian kids illustrations for the Dole pineapple company in a cartoon style in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Barbara’s children were models for the Hawaiian kids.

Barbara Bradley – Dole Hawaiian Kids (circa1970)

Barbara Bradley – Dole Hawaiian Kids Girl (circa1970)

In the limited amount of research done for this post I did not find any serious sculptures of young Polynesian girls, but there is a lot of kitsch; bobble head dolls, dashboard ornaments, and souvenir figurines. An example shown below is a solar powered bobble head of a girl playing the ukulele.

KC Hawaii – Keiki Ukulele Bobble Head Solar Doll (circa2020)

Up to this point, all of the images have been of Hawaiians, or at least of generic Polynesians that could be Hawaiian. New Zealand is by far the largest and most populous island group in Polynesia, but for some reason doesn’t have as much young girl art as Hawaii or French Polynesia. Perhaps New Zealand is too big for the feeling of being on a remote isolated little piece of land. The photograph below is from the studio of one of the great early woman photographers, Elizabeth Pullman. She had an intense interest in the Maori (New Zealand Polynesians) and photographed many of their important leaders. The photo below is an anonymous Maori woman and two girls.

Pullman and Son – Maori Woman and Two Children – (1871-1900)

French Polynesia, which includes the island of Tahiti, was the home of the painter Paul Gauguin for several years. Gauguin created many paintings of Tahitian women, but few paintings of young girls. Two of his paintings of Tahitian girls are shown below. Gauguin was probably influenced by photographer Charles Georges Spitz. Spitz lived in Tahiti, but the photograph posted here is from the Tuamotus Islands.

Paul Gauguin – Piti Teina (Two Sisters) (1892)

Paul Gauguin – Tahitian Woman And Two Children (1901)

Charles Georges Spitz – Tuamotus (circa1888)

Roger Parry was another French art photographer and he was also a war correspondent. Parry visited Tahiti in 1932–1933, and took at least four nude photographs of young Tahitian girls. Two are posted here, followed by a photo from Frederick O’Brien. O’Brien was not an artist; he was a bohemian wanderer and social activist who was in the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia in 1913–1914. His picture of the kava drinker with two women and a girl became well known. It was published in O’Brien’s book White Shadows in the South Seas in 1919, and in National Geographic Magazine about eighty years later.

Roger Parry – Jeune Fille Nue (1932)

Roger Parry – Jeune Fille Nue aux Algues (1932)

Frederick O’Brien -Kivi, the Kava Drinker with the Hetairae of the Valley (1913-1914)

Only a few of the many islands of Polynesia can be covered in this post. Samoa will be the last group of islands considered here. Most of Samoa had been a German possession. It was formerly believed that various groups of people had certain distinctive characteristics. We Americans are commercial, therefore we have bobble head dolls from Hawaii. British are reserved, therefore we have formal studio portraits from New Zealand. French are artistic, therefore we have Gauguin’s paintings from Tahiti. Germans are scientific, therefore we have tomes detailing the ethnography, geology, botany, etc. of Samoa.

The two photos from Samoa are both from scholarly works. The first is from Die Frauenkleidung und ihre natürliche Entwicklung by Carl Heinrich Stratz. Stratz wrote that the picture is from a book by Selenka, but he does not say that Selenka was the photographer. This same image is found in several other early 20th century books. It is a good example of an ethnographic contrivance; an artistic picture disguised as ethnography to make it appear more serious and respectable. The second photograph is true ethnography with no contrivance. It uses a 14-year old girl to illustrate the physical characteristics of the Polynesian race. This image was taken from Naturgeschichte des Menschen, also by Stratz. The image is attributed to the Godefroy album. Godefroy was a German trading company that operated in the Pacific. This picture also appears in many other books, and in spite of the stiff pose has an innocent appeal.

Selenka – Mädchen aus Samoa im Blumenschmuck (circa1900)

Godefroy Album – 14 Jähriges Mädchen aus Samoa (c1900)

Random Images: Otto Dix

(Last Updated On April 16, 2021)

This painting was uncovered by Christian. At first glance, I had though that the blue lines were cracks in the paint but Otto Dix (1891–1969) was actually rendering the girl’s blue veins, perhaps exaggerated in an attempt to stand out from his contemporaries.

Otto Dix – Little Girl (1922)

Some clues to his motivations can be found here.

Lehnert and Landrock’s Young Model

(Last Updated On May 7, 2021)

The team of Rudolf Franz Lehnert and Ernst Heinrich Landrock is probably the best known of all Orientalist photographers. Lehnert was born in 1878 in what is now the Czech Republic, and was then part of the Hapsburg Empire. Landrock was also born in 1878, in Germany. In 1904 Lehnert and Landrock became partners in a photographic studio in Tunis. For ten years they produced a large quantity of photographs and postcards in Tunisia. Landrock was the manager, and Lehnert was the photographer.

Orientalism, a romanticized depiction of the Middle East, was a popular style of art in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Painters and writers made the genre popular before the advent of photography and thus Lehnert and Landrock adopted the Orientalist style. Some critics have complained that Orientalism is denigrating to the people of the Middle East, but I would disagree. Those opposed to Orientalism say that any portrayal of a non-western culture must necessarily depict it as primitive and inferior. This attitude seems to me to indicate an intolerant attitude of the critic rather than of the Orientalist artist. Opponents also say it is not realistic.

I am not qualified to judge if Lehnert and Landrock postcards realistically portray early 20th century Tunis, but I know that postcards in general are not meant to depict reality. I live in Florida. I know that Florida’s climate is humid, with frequent rain. On beaches here you will see people of all ages and both sexes, and occasionally a discarded soda can. On postcards of Florida beaches you will only see sunny sky, spotlessly clean sand, and attractive young women. It’s true that this is unrealistic, but it is not disparaging of Florida, and most people have enough sense to know that reality may be different from a postcard.

The nudity shown on Lehnert and Landrock postcards may be realistic. Islamic societies are often thought to have strict dress codes for women, but there are exceptions to this rule. Samuel Clemens (aka Mark Twain) visited Cairo in 1869 and wrote of seeing people of both sexes naked in public. (See Chapter 31 of his book The Innocents Abroad) Michael Wolgensinger photographed a girl he saw naked in public in Iran in 1958. Pigtails in Paint posted the photo here.

It would not be possible in one post to adequately cover the vast amount of images that were photographed by Lehnert and Landrock, so this post will be limited to a few of the photos of just one of their many models. She appears to me to be among the youngest of their models. Her name is not known. Although Lehnert and Landrock photographed both clothed and nude models, I have only found nude photos of this particular girl. The first three photos show the girl alone. Titles in French are from the internet source of the photo (most are from Wikimedia Commons). I composed the titles in English for pictures that had no title.

Lehnert and Landrock – Jeune Fille au Mirroir (1904-1914)

Lehnert and Landrock – Girl with a Musical Instrument (1904-1914)

Lehnert and Landrock – Jeune-Femme Nue au Tambourin (1904-1914)

In the next two pictures the girl is with Fathma, one of the few Lehnert and Landrock models whose name is known.

Lehnert and Landrock - A-Young Girl and Fathma (1904-1914)

Lehnert and Landrock – A-Young Girl and Fathma (1904-1914)

Lehnert and Landrock – A Young Girl and Fathma on a Couch (1904-1914)

The following two photos show the girl with a young boy. His race indicates that he is probably a slave. When the photo was taken, Tunisia was a protectorate of France. Although slavery was illegal in France, the protectorate status meant that Tunisia was internally self-governing and slavery was legal in Tunisia. Note that the boy’s genitals are censored, but the girl’s are not. Lehnert and Landrock made other photos with nude females and clothed or censored males. An example has been posted on Pigtails here. I have not discovered why there was this aversion to male nudity. My guess would be that male nudity was offensive to many of the people who bought postcards; Lehnert and Landrock may have felt they could sell more postcards by avoiding male nudity.

Lehnert and Landrock – Young Girl and Boy (1904-1914)

Lehnert and Landrock – Another Photo of a Young Girl and Boy (1904-1914)

Female nudity was also censored sometimes, usually by only slightly blurring the vulva. I could not find a censored picture of the particular model who is the focus of this post, but here is a censored photo, from a postcard, of another young Lehnert and Landrock model. The following is the same photo from the book Woman, an Historical and Gynaecological and Anthropological Compendium by H.H. Ploss, M. Bartels, and P. Bartels; edited by E. J. Dingwall (1935). This is the only instance in which I have found a censored and uncensored version of the same photo.

Lehnert and Landrock – Jeune Berbère Nue (censored) (1904-1914)

Lehnert and Landrock – Jeune Berbère Nue (1904-1914)

There seems to be no obvious reason why some are censored and some are not. The age of the model, and the situation being photographed appear to have no bearing on whether the photo is censored. If a photo was censored for postcards sold in a more restrictive jurisdiction, I would expect that there would be both censored and uncensored versions of the same postcard. I have not found an example of this (in the photos above the uncensored version is from a book, not a postcard). The next two photos can both be found at multiple places on the internet, and may give an idea of why we don’t find two versions of the same picture. The second photo is merely a cropped version of the first, yet it appears many different places on the internet. Apparently one postcard collector cut the card to fit the space in his album, and multiple internet sites posted scans of that one card. This indicates that although there are many instances of a photo posted on the internet, they may all be scanned from one or two postcards. Therefore, there may be two different versions of the same postcard, but only one has been posted on the net.

Lehnert and Landrock – Garconnet Nu Assis et Fillette Nue Debout (1904-1914)

Lehnert and Landrock – Garconnet Nu Assis et Fillette Nue Debout (cropped) (1904-1914)

In 1914, the First World War began. Lehnert and Landrock were both nationals of countries at war with France, the protecting power in Tunisia. Their business was closed and they had to leave Tunisia. In 1924, after the war, Lehnert and Landrock started their business over again in Cairo, Egypt. Lehnert died in 1948 and Landrock in 1966. Their business in Cairo has continued after the death of its founders. In 1982, the new manager of the shop discovered the old negatives in storage. There was a resurgence in popularity of Lehnert and Landrock’s art. There was some concern that the negatives of nudes may not be safe in Cairo, so they were sent to the Elysée museum in Lausanne, Switzerland.